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Referencing (APA etc.)

To cite or refer is to indicate where you have obtained information from, which sources you have used. This should be done in certain ways.

Correct use of references is a requirement in all academic work. When referring to sources in text or setting up a bibliography, you must follow a specific reference style. The most frequently used reference style on HiOA is APA.

Reference styles in use at HiOA

  • Technology, Art and Design: There are various styles in use at TKD, including: APA, IEEE and Vancouver. If you are not sure what style to use: consult your teacher.
  • Education and International Studies: APA
  • Health Sciences: APA
    Exception: Pharmacy, biomedicine and radiography use Vancouver
  • Social Sciences: Chicago
    Exception: Archivistics, Library and Information Sciences have their own guidelines for APA

Guidelines from your study program

Your study may have their own guidelines for  academic writing and referral. It may therefore be useful to ask them what rules apply to your subject.

Read more about referencing, reference styles, etc.

The Citation Compass (Kildekompasset)


It is easier to keep track of your references and getting the correct reference style with EndNote citation/reference management software. Students and employees at HiOA may download EndNote free of charge.

Læringssenter og bibliotek Published: Updated: